Dieter Stein, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Germany
There is a set of underlying baseline norms, codified or implicit, that define what counts as “good” science, or, in more fashionable German parlance, as “exzellent” science. Prototypical Open Access science leads to changes in these norms.
For a kick-off, “open” means: what gets published must be motivated by intrinsic interests of science itself, and not outsourced to agents with motivations that are basically uncongenial to the intrinsic interests of scientific discourse. The most prototypical example of such a notion of an Open Science is a Golden Road approach to science. The paper discusses several aspects where such an approach implies redefining norms of “good” or “excellent” science and, in the process, effects a range changes to traditional notions that originated as part of a print publication culture, such as the notion of copyright through the role of libraries to the very notion of a “publication”.
The paper argues for a reconceptualising publication culture rather than trying to fit into an old Procrustean bed tailored to traditional print culture.
Alma Swan, Key Perspectives Ltd, Devon, UK
Almost thirty studies have now been carried out to verify whether or not there is a citation advantage from Open Access. These will be reviewed and some conclusions drawn as to whether Open Access does produce such an advantage and what its nature is. In addition, other advantages - for authors, institutions and nations - from Open Access will be presented and discussed.
Toby Green, OECD, Paris, France
Open access promises a great deal, but will your dataset be lost in cyberspace and remain unused? What are you doing to ensure discovery and utility for a range of publics? In this session you'll learn about the work done at OECD to make data both discoverable and useful to experts and lay users alike. You'll be introduced to OECD's citation tool and see some of the visualizations being developed to make data tell stories. You'll also see how OECD is presenting its datasets alongside books and journals in a single, seamless, service that is part of the global information network for researchers and students. Finally, Christmas comes early for anyone with an iPhone or iPad. Open Data? There's an OECD App for that.
Stevan Harnad, Université du Quebec a Montreal, Canada; University of Southampton, UK
Open Access (OA) means free online access to the 2.5 million articles published every year in the world's 25,000 peer-reviewed scholarly and scientific research journals. OA can be provided in two ways: To provide "Green OA," authors self-archive the final refereed drafts of their articles in their institutional OA repositories immediately upon acceptance for publication (by conventional, non-OA journals). To provide "Gold OA," authors publish their articles in OA journals that make all their articles free online immediately upon publication. (Sometimes a fee is charged to the author's institution for Gold OA.) Because of the benefits of OA (in terms of maximized visibility, accessibility, uptake, usage and impact) to research, researchers, their institutions and the taxpayers that fund them, institutions and funders worldwide are increasingly mandating (i.e. requiring) Green OA self-archiving. Gold OA publishing cannot be mandated by authors' institutions and funders, but universal Green OA self-archiving mandates may eventually lead to a global transition to Gold OA publishing; it depends on whether and how long subscriptions remain sustainable as the means of covering the costs of print and online publication; if subscriptions become unsustainable, authors' institutions will pay journal publishers for peer review out of a portion of their annual windfall subscription cancellation savings. Data-archiving cannot be mandated, because researchers must be allowed the exclusive right to mine their data they have collected if they wish; but as Green OA self-archiving grows, data-archiving too will grow, because of their natural complementarity and the power of global collaboration to accelerate and enhance research progress.
Celina Ramjoué, European Commission, Directorate-General for Research, Science, Economy and Society Directorate - Governance and Ethics Unit, Brussels, Belgium
This presentation will give an overview of European Commission policies and initiatives aiming to promote open access to scientific information in the European Research Area (ERA). In this policy area, the Commission acts both as a policymaking and as a funding body. As policymaker, it defines policies within the context of European research and ICT policy. As a funding body, it lays down rules on access to the results of the research it funds within the Framework Programme for research development. This contribution will introduce the European Commission's general approach regarding access to scientific information, will present specific initiatives in the field of open access to peer-reviewed scientific publications, and will develop a first approach to open access to data.
Malcolm Read, JISC, Bristol, UK
There has long been a view that the outputs of publicly funded research should be publicly available. By this was meant research papers and findings, and it was not felt that publication in journals and monographs that were virtually unavailable at reasonable cost outside universities fully met this need. Open Access is not an attack on peer review or the scholarly publishing industry (although there are real concerns about escalating costs which can no longer be afforded by many universities).
The move to open data is driven by more complex arguments bound up by the need to be more open in demonstrating the uncertain nature of many scientific findings, and the need to manage research data more professionally, yet ensure sensitive or commercially valuable data can be kept secure.
This talk will explain the synergies and ambiguities between open policies and the individual drivers for career researchers and those of universities seeking to balance their responsibilities to society with commercial considerations.
Guido F. Herrmann, Georg Thieme Publishers, Stuttgart, Germany
The talk will present Thieme's activities in the context of Open Access and Open Data. The presentation will also look at the authors' und the users' perspective and Thieme's practical experiences with both.
Martin Rasmussen, Copernicus Publications, Göttingen, Germany
The scientific and economic value of research data is enormous. To ensure successful subsequent usage, the scientific community needs efficient access to data, the data has to be reliable and persistent, and the quality of the data has to be proved.
One solution to these preconditions is to apply the techniques of today’s scientific publishing to research data. Besides its publication in a data repository together with some metadata, the data should undergo a transparent public peer-review using a publication platform.
The presentation discusses two approaches. On the one hand, the data can be the basis for a research article and undergoes a review parallel to the review of the manuscript. The data is then a reviewed supplement to a scientific publication. On the other hand, the data itself can be the subject of a publication whose quality is then assured by peers.
The presentation provides practical experience, especially with the latter strategy, realized through an established open access journal.
Anita Eppelin, German National Library of Medicine (ZB MED), Cologne
In scientific communication, we observe a complex interaction of several stakeholder groups, each of which have distinct interests, strategies and approaches for Open Access and Open Data. The German government initiated a “Commission for the Future of the Information Infrastructure” (KII) in Germany. In this commission, most of the stakeholders are working together in order to design a future scenario for the supply of scientific information. The KII’s evaluation and recommendations for Open Access as well as research data will be particularly highly recognized and will significantly influence Open Access and Open Data developments in Germany.
I will outline the current situation in Germany – players and their interactions in terms of Open Access and Open Data – and present two initiatives and their work in detail. One of them, the KII process, will show the official site, the other one will show the grassroots site of the story.
Sünje Dallmeier-Tiessen, CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
Research data as the main product of research can be unique and is often the result of a complex and cost-intensive research process. Reuse and reinterpretation of such material is envisioned, not only to maintain research integrity, but also to accelerate the advancement of science by sharing results in an early stage.
Generally speaking, there is little general experience with preservation, provision and publishing of research data. Thus so far little research has been done when it comes to researching data publishing models. In history, this has partly been due to the limited existing infrastructures, but with current information technologies, modern and tailored research data provision and publishing are facilitated.
Why tailored? Characteristics of research data vary across and within disciplines. This results in more complex prerequisites/specification when compared to the process of paper publication which is very similar across disciplines. Thus, tailored models are necessary to match the individual characteristics of research data across disciplines. Within this presentation three different approaches are distinguished: object centric, text centric and data centric. Prerequisites and limitations regarding timing and room of the data provision will be discussed and experiences with each of the different models presented.
Regardless of these models, it becomes apparent that due to the individual characteristics of research data, its provision and publication is only possible with the support and knowhow of the research community. This know-how needs to be linked to the competences of infrastructure facilities.
Andreas Hense, Department of Computer Science, Bonn-Rhine-Sieg University of Applied Sciences, Sankt Augustin, Germany
Publication and long term archival of observational data in the field of environmental sciences is a challenging topic of today's eScience research. The amount of effort that goes into technical and scientific quality assurance prior to publication is considerable and might well turn out to be a barrier to data publication. Our project's goal is to lower the amount of manual effort and, at the same time, increase data quality in the process of submitting observational data for publication – in this case meteorological observational data. This goal is divided into the following subgoals:
This talk is about the current state of the project from an eResearch and technical point of view.
Olaf Siegert, German National Library of Economics (ZBW), Kiel, Germany
In Economics as a scholarly discipline, research data play a fast growing role, as empirical research becomes more and more prominent. The discussion in the academic community in this respect is mainly driven by the need for replicable empirical research on the one side and the efforts and incentives for the authors on the other side to comply with the upcoming standards. This is also reflected in the area of academic journals, where a growing number of journals accept data and code together with article submissions and some even have adopted a “Data Availability Policy” and publish the data and code together with the articles.
The presentation looks at the current situation concerning Economics journals and their data archives, with respect to Open Access of the Articles and the data and also gives a brief outlook about possible standards for journal data archives in the future.
Gert G. Wagner, German Data Forum (RatSWD) and Berlin University of Technology (TUB), Berlin, Germany
Open access to data is crucial for researchers interested in the re-analysis of existing data. However, completely free and open access can destroy incentives for data production, particularly if primary researchers are not granted exclusive use of the data they have produced for at least for a limited period of time.
This paper discusses how problems like these can be dealt with in the social sciences, where different agents such as national statistical agencies (official statistics) and academic data providers (e.g., European Social Survey, General Social Surveys) play distinctively different roles. Official statistical data are currently provided under an open access regime (but, of course, are still subject to some restrictions under data protection law). And since most research funding agencies only fund data preparation and/or data collection if open access is provided, there are also numerous other more or less openly available data sets. In fact, somewhat surprisingly, a number of research institutes are willing to produce data under open access regimes. The reason is that their “exclusive” knowledge of the issues pertaining to the data grants them an advantage in the analysis of the data.
However, existing evaluation criteria underestimate the importance of data production and data sharing, making it more and more difficult for social scientists to produce and share their data. And in the current landscape of research governance, where fixed-term contracts are becoming the rule, researchers are under extremely high pressure to publish if they want to receive good evaluations. While the impact of this “publication pressure” is largely positive and may ultimately raise the quality of research in the social sciences, it will also exacerbate data sharing issues as long as evaluations do not give researchers credit for their work in data production and data sharing.
The paper concludes by offering some ideas to improve the incentives for data production and sharing.
Jan Brase, German National Library of Science and Technology (TIB); DataCite, Hanover, Germany
Today libraries face more and new challenges when enabling access to information. The growing amount of information in combination with new non-textual media-types demands a constant changing of grown workflows and standard definitions. Knowledge, as published through scientific literature, is the last step in a process originating from primary scientific data. These data are analysed, synthesised, interpreted, and the outcome of this process is published as a scientific article. Access to the original data as the foundation of knowledge has become an important issue throughout the world and different projects have started to find solutions.
Nevertheless science itself is international; scientists are involved in global unions and projects, they share their scientific information with colleagues all over the world, they use national as well as foreign information providers.
When facing the challenge of increasing access to research data, a possible approach should be global cooperation for data access via national representatives:
DataCite was officially launched on December 1st 2009 in London and has 12 information institutions and libraries from nine countries as members. By assigning DOI names to data sets, data becomes citable and can easily be linked to from scientific publications.
Data integration with text is an important aspect of scientific collaboration. DataCite takes global leadership for promoting the use of persistent identifiers for datasets, to satisfy the needs of scientists. Through its members, it establishs and promotes common methods, best practices, and guidance. The member organisations work independently with data centres and other holders of research data sets in their own domains. Based on the work of the German National Library of Science and Technology (TIB) as the first DOI-Registration Agency for data, DataCite has registered over 850,000 research objects with DOI names, thus starting to bridge the gap between data centers, publishers and libraries.
This presentation will introduce the work of DataCite and give examples how scientific data can be included in library catalogues and linked to from scholarly publications.
Jan Velterop, Concept Alliance, Nijmegen, Netherlands
Science publications used to have the joint function of keeping the 'Minutes of Science' as well as transferring knowledge. The sheer amounts of material published (2 new articles in PubMed every minute of every day) make comprehensive knowledge transfer via reading of articles virtually impossible. When the literature is open, though, much of the essential knowledge it contains can be distilled and the big picture obtained without having to read all the articles, so that reading can then be reserved for those key articles that give insight in the reasoning and argumentation that leads to consensus. The result is a much more efficient knowledge transfer that doesn't have to compromise on comprehensiveness.
Derk Haank, Springer Publishers, Luxemburg
Mr. Haank will address Springer's position on Open Access. What has changed over the last years, what has stayed the same? Is hybrid developing into fully open, or will the models co-exist? He will also touch upon the issue of (open) data. Making data available in a structured, useful way is much more complex than the current practice of article publishing.
Rainer Kuhlen, University Konstanz, Germany
Open Access is not only a model for organizing the production, distribution, and usage of knowledge but is also the expression of a new value system which is being developed in electronic environment. This system is mainly based on the concept of knowledge as a commons. Commons is the central concept of knowledge ecology. This is a still an unusual concept. Ecology in general is concerned with the sustainability of natural resources (for instance water, air/climate, forests) by protecting these resources from overuse, and knowledge ecology aims at the same objective of sustainability. But rather than making the immaterial resources of knowledge and information a scarce good (as is necessary with natural resources) sustainability of immaterial goods can only be achieved by the opposite, by open and free access and unrestricted use.
The central objective of knowledge ecology is to achieve the goal of people-centered, inclusive and sustainable knowledge societies. In the commons paradigm, a new consensus needs to be achieved concerning traditional concepts such as freedom of information and science, intellectual property, authorship and the nature of knowledge objects in general. Today, with the evident crisis of the market paradigm, not only in the finance markets, but also with respect to the disabling effects of commercialized information markets, with damaging effects not only for education and science and for the private consumer markets, but also for the innovation potential of the entire economy, there is a chance for a renaissance of the old idea of the commons, a renaissance of the primacy of common property rights as opposed to private property rights.
The concept of information ecology and in its context the idea of open access provides an alternative both to existing commercial publishing models on the international information markets and to international copyright regulations, which, in the last 20 years, have mainly emphasized the economic impact of knowledge and information. Neither the markets nor regulation by law have taken sufficiently into account the genuine character of knowledge as a common-pool resource. Information ecology does not object to the commercial use of knowledge produced in public environments such as universities and research centers, but suggests that publishing models are only acceptable when they acknowledge the status of knowledge as a commons, allowing free and open access for everyone. This commons must be based on sharing knowledge, producing new knowledge collaboratively, and providing future generations with the same access and usage rights.
The talk aims at discussing questions such as the following:
1. Is there a need for new property right rules when knowledge is increasingly produced collaboratively, when both the concept of single authorship and that of the final, unchangeable work become more and more obsolete?
2. Which property rights should the public have on commons objects such as knowledge and information Is there a need for compensating the public when the commons “knowledge” is exploited for commercial usage, and if so, which kind of compensation is adequate?
3. Should the three-step-test, the barriers for exceptions and limitation in copyright, not be reversed into its contrary, namely that the commercial use of publicly produced knowledge should be the exception and open and free access the default? Which consequences will such a reversal have?
4. Does the public have the right to an institutional mandate in favor of open access – a mandate which not only requests but also requires scientists, in particular those who work in a public environment, to make their publications freely available in open access repositories, at least in a second version when they have been published first in a commercial environment?
5. Which rights should remain with the authors who have created new content? Are the moral rights (primarily the right to the attribution of authorship) sufficient and should an appropriate remuneration system be guaranteed? How can that be organized? Is a cultural flat rate an adequate remuneration means?
6. Is it still appropriate for the state to regulate the processes for the commons “knowledge”, for instance via patent or copyright laws? Is it not up to the commoners themselves to set up the rules on how to organize knowledge and information processes and also to have the means to enforce these rules?
7. Is there still a realistic chance for commercial exploiters of knowledge and information to keep a profitable position in information markets when open access is the general paradigm for making knowledge and information publicly available, at least in science and education environments? What are the appropriate business models which acknowledge the open access paradigm?